Neanderthal extinction hypotheses and Archaic human admixture with modern humans The expansion of modern human population is thought to have begun 45, years ago, and may have taken 15, , years for Europe to be colonized. Because it took so long for Europe to be occupied, it appears that humans and Neanderthals may have been constantly competing for territory. The Neanderthals had larger brains, and were larger overall, with a more robust or heavily built frame, which suggests that they were physically stronger than modern Homo sapiens. Having lived in Europe for , years, they would have been better adapted to the cold weather. The anatomically modern humans known as the Cro-Magnons , with widespread trade networks, superior technology and bodies likely better suited to running, would eventually completely displace the Neanderthals, whose last refuge was in the Iberian peninsula. After about 25, years ago the fossil record of the Neanderthals ends, indicating that they had become extinct. The last known population lived around a cave system on the remote south-facing coast of Gibraltar from 30, to 24, years ago.

One more step

Life timeline and Nature timeline Modern Awash River , Ethiopia, descendant of the Palaeo-Awash, source of the sediments in which the oldest Stone Age tools have been found The Stone Age is contemporaneous with the evolution of the genus Homo , the only exception possibly being the early Stone Age, when species prior to Homo may have manufactured tools. The closest relative among the other living primates , the genus Pan , represents a branch that continued on in the deep forest, where the primates evolved.

The rift served as a conduit for movement into southern Africa and also north down the Nile into North Africa and through the continuation of the rift in the Levant to the vast grasslands of Asia.

A visual guide to major sites related to Human Evolution worldwide. For each site it indicates the hominid fossils found, species, age, pics of the fossil, the site and other illustrative ://

Introduction This family contains by far the most species in the Iranian freshwater ichthyofauna and is divided into two files Abramis to Cyprinus here , and Garra to Vimba see both in Contents. The carp or minnow family is one of the most widespread and speciose families of fishes in the world, certainly the most speciose in fresh water and possibly the largest family of vertebrates the Gobiidae may be the first.

The family is found in North America, Eurasia and Africa. Other common names in English for species include barbels, breams, roaches, snow trouts, bitterlings, shiners, daces, chubs, barbs, “sharks”, among many others. There are about genera and over species Nelson, ; Eschmeyer and Fong, , about 8. In Iran, the family is represented by about? Collares-Pereira argues that the polyploid condition e. There are unbranched rays including rudimentary ones in the dorsal and anal fins followed by the more numerous branched rays the last two branched rays are counted as one.

The first pectoral and the first pelvic fin ray are unbranched and not included in counts. Pharyngeal teeth lie on a modified, fifth gill arch which can be seen or probed behind the shoulder girdle, just inside the gill opening. The arch has to be removed with dissecting equipment to count the teeth.

Olduwan and Acheulian: Early Stone Age

During the Pleistocene, mountain glaciers formed on all the continents and vast glaciers, in places as much as several thousand feet thick, spread across North America and Eurasia. In the eastern U. The Cenozoic [Recent Life] Era is divided into two main sub-divisions: Most of the Cenozoic is the Tertiary, from 65 million years ago to 1.

The Quaternary includes only the last 1.

 · Hominin palaeoecology in Late Pliocene Malawi: First insights from isotopes (13C, 18O) in mammal teeth sites in eastern and southern Africa; Faunal dating suggests an age of – Ma

Mane colour varies and darkens with age; research shows its colour and size are influenced by environmental factors such as average ambient temperature. Mane length apparently signals fighting success in male—male relationships; darker-maned individuals may have longer reproductive lives and higher offspring survival, although they suffer in the hottest months of the year. The presence, absence, colour and size of the mane are associated with genetic precondition, sexual maturity, climate and testosterone production; the rule of thumb is that a darker, fuller mane indicates a healthier animal.

In Serengeti National Park , female lions favour males with dense, dark manes as mates. The hormone testosterone has been linked to mane growth; castrated lions often have little to no mane because the removal of the gonads inhibits testosterone production. In the Chauvet Cave is a sketchy drawing of two maneless lions that appearing to be walking side-by-side. One lion is mostly obscured by the other; the obscuring lion is larger than the obscured one and is depicted with a scrotum.

White lion White lions owe their colouring to a recessive allele The white lion is a rare morph with a genetic condition called leucism that is caused by a double recessive allele. It is not albino; it has normal pigmentation in the eyes and skin. They were removed from the wild in the s, thus decreasing the white lion gene pool.

Early human migrations

Click on the ‘Open Image’ link beneath the description to display the image. It has extreme variation in pattern of coloration, but two color patterns are always present: The 60mm lens at 1: It is a non-climbing species in the treefrog family Hylidae. Cricket frogs have evolved from active tree climbing to living on land as active hoppers eluding predators.

Natural selection has pretty much eliminated toe and finger adhesive pads for climbing in favor of hopping in this species, but poorly developed pads are still present.

 · The southern population of the Shortwing (Anamalai, High-Wavies and Peppara) diverged about 2 Mya from the ancestral population and this divergence is nearly at the time that other African montane forest birds like the Starred Robin Pogonocichla stellata and other montane highland species that diversified at ://

Human evolution index page see books Upright walker: About six or seven million years ago there were no bipedal creatures resembling humanity. The earth was rich with diverse life forms, all subject to and shaped by natural forces and not the slightest signs of the intelligence and creativity that typifies humanity. Planet earth flourished without humanities’ interfering nature as it had for billions of years.

God awareness had not yet emerged upon earth in any form that we can understand. As stated in the Islamic Holy Quraan, there was a time when humans did not exist.

Some sections of this work are incomplete but have been posted as is. They will be updated and queries resolved as time permits. Apart from files not yet complete, distribution maps, some figures and habitat photographs are the main items to be added. A question mark may appear in the text appended to items that need to be checked by me. Numerous queries have led me to post incomplete material. This work has been carried out over a period of 45 years, starting in

Misfits is a British science fiction comedy-drama television show, on E4, about a group of young. For example, in a British first, the characters Simon and Kelly tweeted during the initial transmission of each episode, with the content of ://

Females of all mammal species nurse their young with milk , secreted from the mammary glands. Mammals include the largest animal on the planet, the blue whale. The basic body type is a terrestrial quadruped , but some mammals are adapted for life at sea , in the air , in trees , underground or on two legs. The largest group of mammals, the placentals , have a placenta , which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation.

With the exception of the five species of monotreme egg-laying mammals , all modern mammals give birth to live young. Most mammals, including the six most species-rich orders , belong to the placental group. The largest orders are the rodents , bats and Soricomorpha shrews and allies. The next three biggest orders, depending on the biological classification scheme used, are the Primates apes and monkeys , the Cetartiodactyla whales and even-toed ungulates , and the Carnivora cats , dogs , seals , and allies.

Living mammals are divided into the Yinotheria platypus and echidnas and Theriiformes all other mammals. There are around species of mammal, depending on which authority is cited. In some classifications, extant mammals are divided into two subclasses: The marsupials constitute the crown group of the Metatheria, and include all living metatherians as well as many extinct ones; the placentals are the crown group of the Eutheria.

While mammal classification at the family level has been relatively stable, several contending classifications regarding the higher levels—subclass, infraclass and order, especially of the marsupials—appear in contemporaneous literature.

As Anti-Media often notes, these stories are not entirely unreported by the media. Sessions will speak to the committee in wake of former FBI Director James Comey’s testimony Thursday that raised questions about the AG’s meetings with Russian officials before President Trump was sworn into office and while Sessions was still a senator. Comey’s recent testimony before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, it is important that I have an opportunity to address these matters in the appropriate forum,” Sessions said in a Saturday letter to a House appropriations subcommittee.

 · The common ostrich (Struthio camelus), or simply ostrich, is a species of large flightless bird native to is one of two extant species of ostriches, the only living members of the genus Struthio in the ratite order of birds. The other is the Somali ostrich (Struthio molybdophanes), which was recognized as a distinct species by BirdLife International in having been previously

The period lasted roughly 3. Stone Age artifacts include tools used by humans and by their predecessor species in the genus Homo, as well as the earlier partly contemporaneous genera Australopithecus and Paranthropus. Bone tools were used during this period as well, but are more rarely preserved in the archaeological record. The Stone Age is further subdivided by the types of stone tools in use.

The Stone Age is the first of the three-age system of archaeology , which divides human technological prehistory into three periods: The Stone Age The Iron Age Historical significance The Stone Age is nearly contemporaneous with the evolution of the genus Homo, the only exception possibly being at the very beginning, when species prior to Homo may have manufactured tools.


 · Early human migrations are the earliest migrations and expansions of archaic and modern humans across continents beginning 2 million years ago with the out of Africa migration of Homo initial migration was followed by other archaic humans including H. heidelbergensis, which lived around , years ago and was the likely ancestor of both Denisovans and humans (before Homo sapiens) · Homo sapiens · See also · Further reading



 · Molecular dating based on multiple calibrated points from Lavin et al. and the matK gene data estimated that the Apios lineage diverged from the remaining milletioids mya (HPD: –), and the EA-NA disjunction formed mya (HPD: –) in


Origins of Genus Homo–Australopiths and Early Homo; Variation of Early Homo; Speciation of Homo